Why Four Gospels: Matthew

WHY FOUR GOSPELS?

Matthew
RECAP OF THE INTRODUCTION

The memoirs of the apostles—witnesses  (a modern parallel from a funeral, and analogy to Q)

Four Gospels?

  • Word of God or words of God
  • The use of human agents—

author, historical/social context, audience, purpose, language/writing style

  • The emphasis on “telling the story” (teaching) Vs simple chronicling history (Mark’s tendency)

(The ultimate question, then, is not ‘Is it factual?’ but “Is it true?”)

  • The corporate element
  • Back to faith and the Holy Spirit (5.008, 6.006, 6.011, Confession of 1967)

· Still, to understand the picture drawn of Jesus the Christ, we also must understand the context.

THE GOSPELS – Unique Subjects and Style

  • Mark – Written in the ordinary language of the day – Presents Jesus as the Servant. (Rebel)
  • Matthew – Written to the Hebrew thinking – Presents Jesus as King of Israel. (Rabbi)
  • Luke – Written to the Greek thinking – Presents Jesus as the Great Healer. (Chronicler)
  • John- Written as an interpretation of the Life of Jesus, not just reporting. – Presents Jesus as the Son of God, the Savior. (Mystic)

The style and language of each writer also appears to be oriented toward a different audience.

GOSPEL OF MATTHEW

Author

  • Matthew—a tax collector in Capernaum (9:9), but we know little else

was probably wealthy, would have been educated, skilled with pen

  • Most scholars generally agree that the Gospel did not come from the hand of Matthew.

Matthew has 1068 verses, Matthew uses 606 of them (51% uses Mark’s actual words)

Follows Mark’s order of events

   Barclay:  An eyewitness would not have needed Mark as sourcebook (caveat)

(from Mark study)   There is considerable historical evidence external to the Gospels for the traditional authors. Papias, bishop of the church at Hierapolis in Asia Minor and an old man by A.D. 130, name Matthew and Mark as Gospel writers, indicating that Matthew wrote in Hebrew or Aramaic and describing Mark as one who recorded Peter’s reminiscences. Papias was himself a student of the Apostle John.

  • Papias: Matthew collected the saying of Jesus in the Hebrew tongue.
  • There seems to be general agreement that there was a book of the collected sayings of Jesus, but there not hard evidence. This book may be the one Papias refers to. It is often called Q (from the German word Quelle, meaning source.)

· In Matthew’s case, the gospel would be more than a simple “cut and paste” job.
Date and Historical/Social Context

  • If Mark was written within a decade after the fire in Rome AD63, probably 65-70, most except the most conservative, would set it at 80-90, after the siege and destruction of Jerusalem in AD70.
  • It was written (many believe at Antioch) to Jewish Christians in the midst of a struggle among

Jews after the destruction of Jerusalem between Matthew’s church and an emerging Pharisaic bid for leadership of post-Jerusalem Jews.

Purpose

  • A theory

Q: Pharisees as a group weren’t really that prominent as a group (there weren’t that many of them), so why are they seen as Jesus’ main opponents in Matthew?

A: They were becoming the opponents among post-war Jews.  Christians were not seen in this place at this point as a “new Israel” but the continuing of Israel itself.  There was a struggle between Matthew’s Christian group and Pharisaic group for which is authentic continuation.  Therefore, Jesus, not the Pharisees are the rightful interpreter of the law.

  • To convince Jews that Jesus is the Messiah/King/Christ/Son of God/fulfillment of prophecy.
  • Mark’s emphasis is on what Jesus did; Matthew’s emphasis is on what Jesus said/taught.
  • If not purpose, it is characteristic to improve upon Mark.
  • Where Jesus’ power might be construed as limited

(Mark 1:34 healed many, Vs Matthew 8:16 healed all; Mark 3:8 no Vs Matthew 12:15 not many)

  • Matthew leaves out Jesus fallible (emotional) touches: Mark 3:5, 3:21, 10:14
  • Matthew softens fallible side of disciples, i.e. Mark 10:35 Vs Matthew 20:20

Placement in the N.T.

  • In older times, Matthew was thought to be oldest gospel.
  • Most Jewish, therefore a transition from Hebrew scriptures
  • Opens with genealogy (1:1-17), referring back to David and then Abraham (1:1) covered in O.T.

Style—Key ideas are king/kingdom and fulfill

  • Opening with genealogy (1:1-17) – It is the father’s lineage that counts for royalty.
  • Use of the word kingdom—50 times; kingdom of heaven—32 times; Son of David—9 times.

Genealogy, Wise Men (2:2), Triumphal Entry (21:1-11), Pilate (27:11), Cross (27:37)

all authority is given to me… (28:18)

  • Consistent references to fulfillment of prophecy (‘…this was to fulfill the prophecy…’—16 times)

i.e. The O.T. prophecies are fulfilled, therefore he must be the Messiah.

Jesus’ birth and name  1:21-23

flight to Egypt 2:14-15

slaughter of children 2:16-18

upbringing in Nazareth 2:23

use of parables 13:34-35

triumphal entry 21:3-5

betrayal for thirty pieces of silver  27:9

casting lots for Jesus’ garments as he hung on the cross  27:35

  • Parallel to Moses

Jesus goes up the mountain to preach

Matthew arranges material in 5 discourses to parallel 5 books of the Torah

Law of the Kingdom – Sermon on the Mount (5-7)

Duties of the Kingdom – Missionary Instructions  (10)

Parables of the Kingdom (13)

Greatness/forgiveness in the Kingdom (18)

Coming of the King – Judgment Discourse (24-25)

Survives killing of babies

Jesus dies like some of the prophets

  • Reverence for the Law, yet Jesus is the standard of interpretation off the law

I came to fulfill the law, not to dissolve it… (5:17-20)

you have heard it said, but I say to you… (5:21, 27, 34, 38, 43)

  • Pharisees and Scribes are denounced (but, what they are, not what they teach)

sit in Moses’ seat  (23:21)

John  the Baptist denounces them (3:7-12)

Condemnation (Chapter 23)

  • Pilate is a bit more of a sympathetic figure—fault/blame was with Jewish leaders
  • Matthew is the only synoptic that uses church (16:13-23; 18:17)
  • Strong apocalyptic interest (Chapter 24 is fullest treatment of Synoptics, then 3 parables of Chapter 25)
  • Arranged for memorization—grouped in 3s and 7s

3 gifts (2), 3 temptations (4), 3 denials of Peter, 7 parables (13), 7 woes (23)

GENERAL OUTLINE 

PART ONE (1:1-12:21)

Origins/Beginnings of Jesus’ ministry – 1:1 – 4:22

Jesus preaching, teaching, healing in Galilee – 5:1 – 12:21

  • in word – Sermon on the Mount (5-7)

in deed – Miracles (8-9)

  • Missionary Discourse (10)

conflict (11:2 – 12:21)

PART TWO (12:22 – 28:20)

  • parables of the kingdom (13)

New Community (14-17)

Peter’s confession (16:13-20)

Prediction of sufferings (16:21-27)

  • Community Discourse – greatness/forgiveness in the kingdom (18)

Journey to Jerusalem and Conflict (19 – 22)

Entry into Jerusalem (21:1-11)

The last week and Crucifixion

      Woes to Pharisees (23)

  • Judgment Discourse and parables – Coming of the King (24-25)

Passion and Resurrection (26:1 – 28:15)

Instructions to disciples to evangelize (all) – Great Commission (28:16-20)

                                           GOSPEL OF MATTHEW ONLY

(1) Geneology of Jesus to Joseph husband of Mary …………………………………....1:117
(2) Announcement of Jesus’ Birth to Joseph …………………………………………….1:1825
(3) Visit of the Wise Men …………………………………………………………………….…....2:112
(4) Flight to Egypt …………………………….……………………………………………….…...2:1318
(5) Moved to Capernaum ……………………………………………………………………..4:1317
(6) Wouldbe Followers of Jesus ……………………………………………………………....8:1822
(7) Two Blind Men’s Sight Restored ……………………………………………………......9:2731
(8) Mute Demonic Healed …………………………………………………………………..9:3234
(9) Mission of the Twelve ………………………………………………………………….….....10:515
(10) Coming Persecutions …………………………………………………………………...10:1625
(11) Whom to Fear ……………………………………………………………………………..10:2633
(12) Not Peace, but a Sword ………………………………………………………………..10:3439
(13) Rewards ……………………..…………………………………………………………….…...10:4042
(14) Woes Upon the Privileged …………………………………………………………....11:2030
(15) Sign of Jonah …………………………….…………………………………………………...12:3842
(16) Return of the Unclean Spirit ……….………………………………………………….12:4345
(17) Parable of Wheat and Weeds ……….………………………………….……………..13:2430
(18) Parable of the Leaven …………………..……………………………………………………..13:33
(19) Use of Parables ……………………………..……………………………………………..13:3435
(20) Jesus Explains the Parable of the Weeds …..……………………………………..13:3643
(21) Parable of the Hidden Treasure ………………...…………………………………..…….13:44
(22) Parable of the Fine Pearl ..………………………...…………………………………....13:4546
(23) Parable of the Net……………………………………….………………………………...13:4751
(24) Treasures New and Old ……………………………...…………………………………..13:5153
(25) Many Miracles …………………………………………….……………………………....15:2931
(26) Tax Money …………………………………………………..…………………………....17:2427

(27) Temptations to Sin ………………………………………..……………………………....18:69
(28) Parable of the Lost Sheep ……………………………….…………………………….....18:1014
(29) Reproving Another Who Sins ………………………….……………………………….18:1520
(30) Forgiveness ……………………………………………………..………………………….18:2122
(31) Parable of the Unmerciful Servant …………………...……………………………...18:2325
(32) Labors of 11th Hour ………………………………………….………………………….......20:116
(33) Healing in the Temple ………………………………………...………………………..………21:14
(34) Parable of Two Sons ……………………………………………..………………………....21:2832
(35) Parable of King’s Son ……………..……………………………...………………………….22:114
(36) Jesus Denounces Scribes and Pharisees ……………………..……………………….23:136
(37) Lament over Jerusalem ………………………………………….……………………23:3739
(38) Necessity for Watchfulness …………………………………………..…………………..24:3644
(39) Faithful or the Unfaithful Slave ……………………………………………………...24:4551
(40) Parable of 10 Virgins ……………………………………………………..…………....….25:113
(41) Parables of 10 Talents ………………………………………………………..…………….25:1430
(42) Discourse on Judgment Day ………………………………………………...…………..25:3146
(43) Suicided of Judas …………………………………………………………………..………..27:310
(44) Pilates Wife ………….………………………………………………………………...……..……..27:19
(45) Pilates Washing of His Hands ………………………………………………….……..…..27:24
(46) Watch at the Tomb ………………….………………………………………………....…...27:6266
(47) Jesus’ Appearance to the Other Women ………………………………………..…...28:910
(48) Guards Report of the Resurrection ……………………..…………..…………….....28:1115
(49) Accompanying His Messengers ………………………………………………………........28:2