Why Four Gospels: Mark

RECAP OF THE INTRODUCTION

The memoirs of the apostles—witnesses

The part faith plays

Trinitarian implications in Biblical structure…and the place of the Gospels

Four Gospels?

  • A challenge to the notion of verbal inspiration (Word of God or words of God)
  • The use of human agents—

author, audience, historical/social context, language/writing style, world view, purpose

  • The corporate element
  • Back to faith and the Holy Spirit (5.008, 6.006, 6.011, Confession of 1967)
  • But it does not come down to individual religion or interpretation

Points of Agreement

  • That Jesus the Christ is the Messiah of God (vs agent of evil)
  • That Jesus the Christ represents the fullness of the revelation of character/nature of God
  • That Jesus the Christ represents the fullness of God’s will for humanity
  • That the cross represents the supreme demonstration of God’s love relationship to humanity
  • That the resurrection represents the validation of the work of Christ and supreme power of God

THE GOSPELS

Unique Subjects and Style

  • Mark – Written in the ordinary language of the day – Presents Jesus as the Servant. (Rebel)
  • Matthew – Written to the Hebrew thinking – Presents Jesus as King of Israel. (Rabbi)
  • Luke – Written to the Greek thinking – Presents Jesus as the Great Healer. (Chronicler)
  • John- Written as an interpretation of the Life of Jesus, not just reporting. – Presents Jesus as the Son of God, the Savior. (Mystic)

The style and language of each writer also appears to be oriented toward a different audience.

Comparison of Material Covered –see appendix

Mark—almost universally agreed that this is the earliest Gospel, thus possibly the most important

(from Barclay)

Mark has 661 verses; Matthew has 1068; Luke has 1149

Of Mark’s 661, Matthew reproduces 606

(sometimes with altered wording, but 51% of actual words)

Of Mark’s 661, Luke reproduces 320, and he actually uses 53% of Mark’s actual words

Of the 55 verses Matthew does not reproduce, 31 are found in Luke

GOSPEL OF MARK

Author

Mark was thee nephew of Barnabas

Went with Paul and Barnabas on their first missionary journey, but Mark left and went home

Paul dubbed him a “quitter” (Acts 15:37-40)

Mark was with Paul when he wrote letter to Colossians (4:10) from prison, also Philemon (v 24)

Paul wanted him near the end of his life (II Timothy 4:11)

Mark thought to be the subject of Mark 14:51-52

The secretary for Peter (Words below echo a general agreement among scholars.)

      There is considerable historical evidence external to the Gospels for the traditional authors. Papias, bishop of the church at Hierapolis in Asia Minor and an old man by A.D. 130, name Matthew and Mark as Gospel writers, indicating that Matthew wrote in Hebrew or Aramaic and describing Mark as one who recorded Peter’s reminiscences. Papias was himself a student of the Apostle John.

      Justin Martyr, after studying many contemporary Greek philosophies, converted to Christianity sometime before AD 130. He speaks of the Gospels as “memoirs of the apostles.  He says they were written “by apostles and those who followed them, which matches the traditional ascription to two apostles (Matthew and John) and two followers (Mark of Peter, Luke of Paul). He quotes from or mentions matters found in each of the four Gospels, and apparently alludes to Mark’s Gospel as Peter’s memoirs.

Supporting evidence:

  • In every recorded incident, the disciples are present, with exception of the temptation and crucifixion
  • Peter, always depicted as leader of group is presented in very fallible light—8:31-33, 9:5-6, 10:28-30, 14:29, 14:66-72

Date

Most generally agree that Mark was written within a decade after the fire in Rome on 7/16 AD63,

probably 65-70—more than 30 years after the Resurrection

It was written as encouragement to survivors of ensuing wave of persecution of Christians—Ch 13

(Note contrast if first half (1-8) to second half  (9-16)—awesome power vs suffering)

Style

  • Compression—brevity (Reader’s Digest version), but more than brevity

1 verse – prolog

7 verses – John the Baptizer

verse 9 – Presents himself for baptism

2 verses to temptation in the wilderness

verse 14 – Jesus is in Galilee, preaching the gospel of God

  • Immediacy—favorite words are immediately (41 times) and again (over 25 times)

uses the word and at beginning of sentence 151 times (literary device to pick up the pace)

  • More concerned with “telling the story” than a chronologically correct recitation of history
  • Original Greek is not the best (Matthew and Luke tend to improve Mark’s language)
  • Quotations in Aramaic

 

GENERAL OUTLINE

 

Prolog

The beginning of the good news of Jesus Christ, the Son of God.  – Mark 1:1

 

Beginnings of ministry (birth/genealogy is not mentioned)  – Mark 1:2-13

Jesus preaching, teaching, healing in Galilee – Mark 1:14 – 8:26

Pivot of Peter’s confession, Jesus predictions of suffering and confirmation – 8:27-38; 9:1-8)

Journey to Jerusalem – Mark 9:30-10:52

The last week and Crucifixion – Mark 11-15

11:1-11  Palm Sunday

 

The Resurrection

Original – 16:1-8

Later additional endings – 16:9-20

 

Image of Christ

  • Active—19 miracles, 9 parables (works take more precedence than words)
  • A very lifelike Jesus

4:37-38 – asleep in stern of the boat

5:42-43 – age of girl; tells parents to give her something to eat

6:40 – sit down “by companies”

10:21 – rich young ruler—looked on him and loved him

9:36, 10:16 – tender dealings with children

10:32 – setting out for Jerusalem, Jesus striding ahead in lonely determination

  • More lifelike disciples

6:51-52 – Jesus walking on water (Matthew has them worshipping)

10:35 – James and John ask for places of honor (Matthew has their mother ask)

  • An awesome Christ

Power over supernatural forces  (1:23-28, 5:1-13; 5:21-24, 35-43; 5:24b-34; 9:20-29)

Healing (1:29-30, 1:40-45, 2:3-12, 3:1-6, 7:24-30, 31-27; 8:22-26; 10:46-52)

Power over natural forces (4:35-41; 6:47-52)

Feeding people (6:30-44, 8:1-10)

  • Challenging status quo of religion

power to forgive sins – 2:6-11

plucking grain on the Sabbath – 2:23-28

healing on the Sabbath – 3:1-6

what defiles a person – 7:1-14

  • Where does the power come from? 3:22-30 (includes the “unforgivable sin”)
  • Opposition

6:14-29 – Herod learns of Jesus, fears John the Baptist has come back

11:15-19  – Cleansing of the Temple

11:27-33  – By what authority?

12:1-12 – Parable of the Vineyard

12:13-17 – Paying Taxes (Pharisee)

12:18-27 – Whose wife in the resurrection?  (Sadducees)

12:28-34 – Greatest Commandment (Scribes)

Crucifixion

14:1-10 – Anointing of head, Judas looks for an opportunity

14:12-31 – Last Supper

14:32-52 – Gethsemane

14:53-72 – Trial efore Jews

15:1-47 – Trial before Pilate and Crucifixion

(Only word from cross—My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?)

Resurrection

16:1-8 – Two Marys go to prepare body, stone rolled back, they entered tomb,

saw “young man”, go tell disciples to meet him in Galilee, they said nothing to anyone…

2 endings – one short

16:9-20 – Other ending added—Mary Magdalene told disciples, they would not believe,

appeared to “two of them” (Luke) , later to eleven (John), commission (Matthew)

 

Harmony of the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John

Subject Matthew Mark Luke John
  1  John’s Ministry Begins  3:1-12  1:1-8  3:1-18  1:19-28
 2 Jesus baptized 3:13-17 1:9-11 3:21-23 1:29-34
 3 Jesus Tempted 4:1-11 1:12-13 4:1-13
 4 Leaves for Galilee 4:12 1:14 4:14 4:1-4
 5 Returns to Galilee 1:15 4:15 4:43-45
6 Fishers of men 4:18 1:16-20 5:1-11
7 Simon’s mother-in-law 8:14-15 1:29-31 4:38-39
8 Sick healed in evening 8:16-17 1:32-34 4:40-41
9 First Preaching tour of Galilee 4:23-25 1:35-39 4:42-44
10 Cleansing of leper 8:1-4 1:40-45′ 5:12-16′
11 Healing of the paralytic 9:1-8 2:1-12 5:17-26
12 Calling of Levi 9:9-13 2:13-17 5:27-32
13 Question about fasting 9:14-17 2:18-22 5:33-39
14 Picking grain on Sabbath 12:1-8 2:23-28 6:1-5
15 Man with withered hand 12:9-14 3:1-6 6:6-11
16 Multitudes Healed  12:15-21 3:7-12 6:17-19
17a Choosing of the twelve Disciples 10:1-4 3:13-19 6:12-16
17b Jesus Accused of Blasphemy 12:22-37  3:20-30 11:14-23
18 Mothers, Brothers Seek 12:46-50 3:31-35 8:19-21
19 Parable of sower 13:1-9 4:1-9 8:4-8
20 Why Jesus used parables 13:10-17 4:10-12 8:9-10
21 Interpretation of Sower parable 13:18-23 4:13-20 8:11-15
22 Parable of the Mustard Seed 13:31-32 4:30-32 13:18-19
23 Stilling the storm 8:23-27 4:35-41 8:22-25
24 Gerasene demoniac 8:28-34 5:1-20 8:26-39
25 Jairus’ daughter and woman with hemorrage 9:18-26 5:21-43 8:40-56 6:1-14
26 Twelve sent out 9:35-11:1 6:6-13 9:1-6
27 Opinions Concerning Jesus 14:1-2 6:1 9:7-9
28 Death of John the Baptist 14:3-12 6:17-29 3:19-20
29 Feeding of the five thousand 14:13-21 6:32-44 9:10-17
30 Jesus walks on Water 14:22-33 6:45-52 6:15-21
31 Teachings on defilement 15:1-20 7:1-23 11:37-41
32 Confession of Peter 16:13-20 8:27-30 9:18-21
33 First passion prediction 16:21-23 8:31-33 9:22
34 Teaching on discipleship 16:24-28 8:34-9:1 9:23-27
35 The Transfiguration 17:1-9 9:2-10 9:28-36
36 Demon-possessed boy 17:14-21 9:14-29 9:37-43a
37 Second passion prediction 17:22-23 9:30-31 9:43b-45
 38 Teaching on true greatness 18:1-5 9:33-37 9:36-48
39 Jesus blesses children 19:13-15 10:13-16 18:1-17
40 Rich young man 19:16-22 10:17-22 18:18-23
41 On riches and rewards 19:23-31 10:23-31 18:24-30
42 Third passion prediction 20:17-19 10:32-34  18:31-34
43 Healing the blind man 20:29-34 10:46-52 18:35-43
44 The triumphal entry 21:1-9 11:1-10 19:28-40 12:12-19
45 Cleansing the temple 21:12-13 11:15-17 19:45-46
46 Question of authority 21:3-17 11:27-33 20:1-8
47 Parable of talents 21:33-46 12:1-12 20:9-19
48  Paying taxes to Caesar 22:15-22 12:13-17 20:20-26
49 On the resurrection 22:23-33 12:18-27 20:20-26
50 Concerning David’s son 22:41-46 12:35-37a 20:41-44
51 On the destruction of the Temple 24:1-2 13:1-2 21:5-6
52 Signs before the end 24:3-8 13:3-8 21:7-11
53 Coming Persecution 24:9-14 13:9-13 21:12-19
54 Desolating sacrilege 24:15-22 13:14-20 21:20-24 13:31-38
55 Coming of the Son of Man 24:29-31 13:24-27 21:25-28 18:1-12
56 Parable of fig tree 24:32-36 13:28-32 21:29-33
57 Conspiracy against Jesus 26:1-5 13:28-32 21:29-33
58 Anointing by Mary 26:6-13 14:3-9 12:2-8
59 The betrayal of Judas 26:14-16 14:10-11 22:3-6
60 Preparations for the Passover 26:17-20 14:12-17 22:7-14
61 Judas revealed 26:21-25 14:18-21 22:21-23 13:21-22
62 The Last Supper 26:26-29 14:22-25 22:15-20
63 Peter’s denial foretold 26:30-35 14:26-31 22:31-34 13:31-38
64 Gethsemane 26:36-46 14:32-42 22:39-46 18:1
65 Betrayal, Arrest & Trial of Jesus 26:57-68 14:43-65 22:47-53 18:2-14
66 Peter’s Triple Denial 26:58-75 14:54-72 22:54-62 18:15-27
67 Condemend by the Council 27:1 15:1 22:66-71
68 First Appearance before Pilate 27:11-14 15:1-5 23:107 18:28-38
69 Jesus before Herod 27:15-26 15:6-15 23:13-25 18:39-19:16
70 Led to Golgotha 27:31-34 15:20-23 23:26-33 19:16-17
71 First 3 hours on the Cross 27:35-44 15:24-32 23:33-43 19:18-27
72 Last 3 hours on the Cross 27:45-50 15:33-37 23:44-46 19:28-30
73 Events of Jesus Death 27:51-56 15:38-41 23:45-49  
74 Burial of Jesus 27:57-60 15:42-46 23:50-54 19:31-37
75 Women visit the Tomb 28:1-10 16:1-8 24:1-11
76 Jesus appeared to Disciples 16:14 24:36-43 20:19-25
77 Great Commission 28:16-20 16:15-18 24:44-49

 

The longest Gospel version is indicated by the green type and the blue indicate almost identical length or words
 GOSPEL OF LUKE ONLY

(1) Announcement of Birth of John …………………………………………………………………1:5-25
(2) Announcement of Birth of Jesus ………………………………………………………………1:26-38
(3) Song of Elisabeth to Mary………………………………………………………………………..1:39-45
(4) Mary’s song of Praise……………………………………………………………………………….1:46-56
(5) Birth, Infancy, and Purpose of John the Baptist…………………………………………..1:57-66
(6) Zechariah’s Prophecy ………………………………………………………………………………1:67-80 Proclamation to Angels of Birth of Jesus…………………………………………………………..2:8-14
(8) Visit of Shepherds………………………………………………………………………………….. 2:15-20
(9) Jesus Circumcision and First Temple visit ………………………………………………….2:21-40
(10) Jesus Second Temple visit and 18 yrs……………………………………………………….2:41-52
(11) Genealogy of Jesus through Mary ……………………………………………………………3:23-38
(12) Rejection at Nazareth ……………………………………………………………………………..4:16-30
(13) Raises Widows Son for Dead …………………………………………………………………..7:11-17
(14) Sinful women anoints Jesus……………………………………………………………………..7:36-50
(15) Service of the Seventy……………………………………………………………………………..10:1-12
(16) Woes to Unrepentent Cities……………………………………………………………………10:13-16
(17) Return of he Seventy……………………………………………………………………………. 10:21-24
(18) Story of good Samaritan…………………………………………………………………………10:25-37
(19) Hospitality of Martha and Mary ……………………………………………………………..10:38-42
(20) A Lesson in Prayer………………………………………………………………………………….. 11:1-4
(21) Preseverance in Prayer……………………………………………………………………………..11:5-13
(22) Jesus accused of Connection with Beelzebub…………………………………………….11:14-36
(23) Judgment Against Lawyers and Pharisees……………………………………………….. 11:37-54
(24) Jesus gives warnings and encouragement………………………………………………….. 12:1-12
(25) Parable of the Rich Fool………………………………………………………………………… 12:13-21
(26) Jesus told disciples not to worry………………………………………………………………. 12:22-34
(27) Jesus on watchfulness……………………………………………………………………………..12:35-41
(28) Parable of the wise manager…………………………………………………………………….12:42-48
(29) Not peace but division……………………………………………………………………………. 12:49-53
(30) Interpreting the Times……………………………………………………………………………. 12:54-56
(31) Settling with Your Opponent……………………………………………………………………12:51-59
(32) Repent or Perish…………………………………………………………………………………………13:1-5
(33) Barren Fig Tree …………………………………………………………………………………………13:6-9
(34) Healing on Sabbath……………………………………………………………………………….. 13:10-17
(35) Parable of Mustard Seed………………………………………………………………………… 13:18-19
(36) Parable of the Leaven…………………………………………………………………………….. 13:20-21
(37) Parable of the Narrow Door……………………………………………………………………. 13:22-30
(38) Lament over Jerusalem………………………………………………………………………….. 13:31-35
(39) Meal with a Pharisee ………………………………………………………………………………….14:1-6
(40) Humility and Hospitality………………………………………………………………………….. 14:7-14
(41) Parable of the Great Banquet…………………………………………………………………….14:15-24
(42) Demands of Discipleship …………………………………………………………………………14:25-35
(43) Parable of Lost Sheep, coin, Son……………………………………………………………….. 15:1-32
(44) Parables of Unjust Steward, Rich Man and Lazarus………………………………………. 16:1-13
(45) Law and the Kingdom of God ……………………………………………………………………16:14-18
(46) Parable of Richman and Lazarus……………………………………………………………….. 16:19-31
(47) Lessons on Service,Faith Influence……………………………………………………………… 17:1-10
(48) Begins last Journey to Jerusalem via Galilee, Samaria……………………………………….17:11
(49) Heals Ten Lepers ……………………………………………………………………………………..17:12-19
(50) Lessons on the Coming Kingdom………………………………………………………………..17:20-37
(51) Parables, Persistent Widow, Tax collector…………………………………………………….. 18:1-14
(52) Interview with Zaccheus ………………………………………………………………………………19:1-10
(53) Parable the Minas……………………………………………………………………………………….19:11-27
(54) Healing of Malchris Ear………………………………………………………………………………22:50-51
(55) Jesus before Herod……………………………………………………………………………………….23:6-12
(56) Jesus’ appearance to Peter……………………………………………………………………………….. 24:34