Why Four Gospels: Luke

WHY FOUR GOSPELS?

Luke

RECAP OF THE INTRODUCTION

Four Gospels?

  • The memoirs of the apostles—witnesses
  • Word of God or words of God
  • The use of human agents—

author, historical/social context, audience, purpose, language/writing style

  • The emphasis on “telling the story” Vs simple chronicling history
  • Back to faith and the Holy Spirit (5.008, 6.006, 6.011, Confession of 1967)
  • Therefore, “human element” does not eliminate either truth of substance or inspiration
  • Still, to understand the picture drawn of Jesus the Christ, we also must understand the context.

THE GOSPELS – Unique Subjects and Style

  • Mark – Written in the ordinary language of the day – Presents Jesus as the Servant. (Rebel)
  • Matthew – Written to the Hebrew thinking – Presents Jesus as King of Israel. (Rabbi)
  • Luke – Written to the Gentile thinking – Presents Jesus as the Great Healer. (Chronicler)
  • John- Written as an interpretation of the Life of Jesus, not just reporting. – Presents Jesus as the Son of God, the Savior. (Mystic)

The style and language of each writer also appears to be oriented toward a different audience.

Luke—almost universally agreed that this is the last synoptic Gospel written

Luke has 1149 verses

Of Mark’s 661, Luke reproduces 320, and he actually uses 53% of Mark’s actual words

Of the 55 verses Matthew does not reproduce, 31 are found in Luke

 

GOSPEL OF LUKE

Author

  • Luke—a physician (Col. 4:4) and traveling companion of Paul (II Tim. 4:11, Philemon 1:24)

(Also the “we” passages in Acts—16:10-17, 20:5-15, 21:1-18, 27:1-18-16)

  • Barclay says that Luke wasn’t important enough to name a book after, therefore must be author

(or based upon works, notes of Luke—Acts ends with Paul’s fate unknown

      and Luke-Acts does not mention destruction of Jerusalem)

  • Physician Medical details in gospel 4:38, 5:12, 6:6, 9:39-42, 18:25, 22:44
  • Only non-Jewish New Testament writer
  • Only Gospel with a sequel (Acts)
  • There seems to be general agreement that there was a book of the collected sayings of Jesus, often called Q (from the German word Quelle, meaning source.)
  • A deliberate research project (see prologue) compiled from eyewitnesses
  • Well educated, fluent in Greek (best in N.T.), possessed keen sense of literary style

Date and Historical/Social Context—see note of author above

 

Purpose

Prologue  Luke 1:1-4

many have undertaken to set down an orderly account…just as they were handed on by eyewitnesses

      I, too, decided, after investigating…

      most excellent Theophilus (lover of God)  most excellent = influential, usually Roman official

so that you may now the truth about things which you have been instructed

 

Christianity is not a threat to the Roman Empire (dates from reigning emperor and governor)

Instruction for Gentile inquirer

Defense of Paul in trial before Caesar

Style—Key ideas are son of man (25 times), lord (39 times, out of 103 uses of term)

Matthew and Luke both follow Mark’s general outline, but Luke seems more deliberately chronological (Datable references to historic figures: 1:5, 2:1-2, 3:1-2)

 

Narrative style—18 parables found in no other gospel (including Ch. 15—lost sheep, coin, son)

3 Canticles (ancient songs)—1:46-55 (Magnificat), 1:68-79 (Benedictus), 3:29-32 (Nunc Dimittis)

Joyful—begins with joyous account of birth; ends with joyous account of ascension (24:50-53)

Gospel of prayer

Jesus prayed

at his baptism (3:21)

in secret (5:16, 6:12, 9:18, 9:28-29)

before eating (9:16, 22:17-19)

Significant prayers

Lord’s Prayer (11:1-4)

In Garden of Gethsemane (22:39-46)

Two parables found only in Luke highlight importance of persistent prayer (11:5-13, 18:1-8)

Women

      birth narrative was written from Mary’s perspective

Elizabeth (1:39-45)

widow of Nain (7:11-15)

sinful woman anoints Jesus’ feet (7:36-50)

women contributed monetarily to ministry (8:1-3)

Martha and Mary (10:38-42)

healing of crippled woman (13:10-16)

women observed the crucifixion (22:49)

first resurrection appearances to women (24:1-10)

Gospel to poor

Magnificat (1:36-55)

Birth in a Manger (2:7)

Announcement in synagogue (4:18-19)

Luke’s beatitudes (6:20-21)

Parable of the rich fool (12:13-21)

Parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus (16:19-31)

Offering of widow (21:1-4)

Universal (13:29)—Samaritans (10:30-37, also 17:16), Centurion (7:2-10), Gentiles (4:25-27)

(also, traces lineage back to Adam 3:23-38)

Luke ends departed in body, Acts begins returned in Spirit

Words from the Cross

Father, forgive them  23:34

…today you will be with me in paradise 23:43

Father, into your hands I commend my spirit 23:46 (more serene that forsaken of Mark/Matthew)

 

GENERAL OUTLINE

 

Luke 1:1-4                  The Prologue

Luke 1:5 – 2:52          Infancy Narrative

Luke 3:1 – 4:13          John’s Ministry and Preparation for Jesus’ Ministry

Luke 4:14 – 9:50        Ministry in Galilee

Luke 9:51 – 19:27      Journey to Jerusalem

Luke 19:28 – 21:38    Events in Jerusalem

Luke 22:1 – 23:56      Passion Narrative

Luke 24:1-53              Resurrection and Ascension

 

 GOSPEL OF LUKE ONLY

(1) Announcement of Birth of John …………………………………………………………………1:5-25
(2) Announcement of Birth of Jesus ………………………………………………………………1:26-38
(3) Song of Elisabeth to Mary………………………………………………………………………..1:39-45
(4) Mary’s song of Praise……………………………………………………………………………….1:46-56
(5) Birth, Infancy, and Purpose of John the Baptist…………………………………………..1:57-66
(6) Zechariah’s Prophecy ………………………………………………………………………………1:67-80
Proclamation to Angels of Birth of Jesus…………………………………………………………..2:8-14
(8) Visit of Shepherds………………………………………………………………………………….. 2:15-20
(9) Jesus Circumcision and First Temple visit ………………………………………………….2:21-40
(10) Jesus Second Temple visit and 18 yrs……………………………………………………….2:41-52
(11) Genealogy of Jesus through Mary ……………………………………………………………3:23-38
(12) Rejection at Nazareth ……………………………………………………………………………..4:16-30
(13) Raises Widows Son for Dead …………………………………………………………………..7:11-17
(14) Sinful women anoints Jesus……………………………………………………………………..7:36-50
(15) Service of the Seventy……………………………………………………………………………..10:1-12
(16) Woes to Unrepentent Cities……………………………………………………………………10:13-16
(17) Return of he Seventy……………………………………………………………………………. 10:21-24
(18) Story of good Samaritan…………………………………………………………………………10:25-37
(19) Hospitality of Martha and Mary ……………………………………………………………..10:38-42
(20) A Lesson in Prayer………………………………………………………………………………….. 11:1-4
(21) Preseverance in Prayer……………………………………………………………………………..11:5-13
(22) Jesus accused of Connection with Beelzebub…………………………………………….11:14-36
(23) Judgment Against Lawyers and Pharisees……………………………………………….. 11:37-54
(24) Jesus gives warnings and encouragement………………………………………………….. 12:1-12
(25) Parable of the Rich Fool………………………………………………………………………… 12:13-21
(26) Jesus told disciples not to worry………………………………………………………………. 12:22-34
(27) Jesus on watchfulness……………………………………………………………………………..12:35-41
(28) Parable of the wise manager…………………………………………………………………….12:42-48
(29) Not peace but division……………………………………………………………………………. 12:49-53
(30) Interpreting the Times……………………………………………………………………………. 12:54-56
(31) Settling with Your Opponent……………………………………………………………………12:51-59
(32) Repent or Perish…………………………………………………………………………………………13:1-5
(33) Barren Fig Tree …………………………………………………………………………………………13:6-9
(34) Healing on Sabbath……………………………………………………………………………….. 13:10-17
(35) Parable of Mustard Seed………………………………………………………………………… 13:18-19
(36) Parable of the Leaven…………………………………………………………………………….. 13:20-21
(37) Parable of the Narrow Door……………………………………………………………………. 13:22-30
(38) Lament over Jerusalem………………………………………………………………………….. 13:31-35
(39) Meal with a Pharisee ………………………………………………………………………………….14:1-6
(40) Humility and Hospitality………………………………………………………………………….. 14:7-14
(41) Parable of the Great Banquet…………………………………………………………………….14:15-24
(42) Demands of Discipleship …………………………………………………………………………14:25-35
(43) Parable of Lost Sheep, coin, Son……………………………………………………………….. 15:1-32
(44) Parables of Unjust Steward, Rich Man and Lazarus……………………………………….. 16:1-13
(45) Law and the Kingdom of God …………………………………………………………………….16:14-18
(46) Parable of Richman and Lazarus………………………………………………………………… 16:19-31
(47) Lessons on Service,Faith Influence………………………………………………………………. 17:1-10
(48) Begins last Journey to Jerusalem via Galilee, Samaria………………………………………..17:11
(49) Heals Ten Lepers ……………………………………………………………………………………….17:12-19
(50) Lessons on the Coming Kingdom………………………………………………………………….17:20-37
(51) Parables, Persistent Widow, Tax collector……………………………………………………… 18:1-14
(52) Interview with Zaccheus ……………………………………………………………………………….19:1-10
(53) Parable the Minas………………………………………………………………………………………..19:11-27
(54) Healing of Malchris Ear……………………………………………………………………………….22:50-51
(55) Jesus before Herod………………………………………………………………………………………..23:6-12
(56) Jesus’ appearance to Peter……………………………………………………………………………….. 24:34